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SCRC Article Library: List of Trade Unions: Tariff and Tax in International Trade

List of Trade Unions: Tariff and Tax in International Trade

Published on: Jan, 15, 2011

by: Winston Cockburn, MBA '05 Michael Johnston , MBA '05 Steven Edwards, Co-Director SCRC North Carolina State University

List of Trade Unions (1)

Benelux Economic Union (Benelux)
Note – acronym from Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg

Established
3 February 1958; effective – 1 November 1960

Aim
to develop closer economic cooperation and integration

Members (3)
Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands

Big Seven
Note – membership is the same as the Group of 7

Established
NA 1975

Aim
to discuss and coordinate major economic policies

Members (7)
Big Six (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK) plus the US

Big Six
Note – not to be confused with the Group of 6

Established
NA 1967 aim – to foster economic cooperation

Members (6)
Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK

Central American Common Market (CACM)

Established
13 December 1960, collapsed in 1969, reinstated in 1991

Aim
to promote establishment of a Central American Common Market

Members (5)
Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua; note – Panama, although not a member, pursues full regional cooperation

European Community (or European Communities, EC)

Established
8 April 1965 to integrate the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the European Coal and Steel Community (ESC), the European Economic Community (EEC or Common Market), and to establish a completely integrated common market and an eventual federation of Europe; merged into the European Union (EU) on 7 February 1992; member states at the time of merger were Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK

European Union (EU)
Note – evolved from the European Community (EC)

Established
7 February 1992; effective – 1 November 1993

Aim
to coordinate policy among the 15 members in three fields: economics, building on the European Economic Community’s (EEC) efforts to establish a common market and eventually a common currency to be called the ‘euro’, which superseded the EU’s accounting unit, the ECU; defense, within the concept of a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); and justice and home affairs, including immigration, drugs, terrorism, and improved living and working conditions

Members (15)
Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK

New member states (10)
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia; note – states will be admitted into the Union 1 May 2004

Membership applicants (3)
Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey

Group of 2 (G-2)

Informal term that came into use about 1986; to facilitate bilateral economic cooperation between the two most powerful economic giants;

Members were Japan, US

Group of 3 (G-3)

Established
NA September 1990

Aim
mechanism for policy coordination

Members (3)
Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela

Group of 5 (G-5)

Established
22 September 1985

Aim
to coordinate the economic policies of five major noncommunist economic powers

Members (5)
France, Germany, Japan, UK, US

Group of 6 (G-6)
Note – also known as Groupe des Six Sur le Desarmement; not to be confused with the Big Six

Established
22 May 1984

Aim
to achieve nuclear disarmament

Members (6)
Argentina, Greece, India, Mexico, Sweden, Tanzania

Group of 7 (G-7)
Note – membership is the same as the Big Seven

Established
22 September 1985

Aim
to facilitate economic cooperation among the seven major noncommunist economic powers

Members (7)
Group of 5 (France, Germany, Japan, UK, US) plus Canada and Italy

Group of 8 (G-8)

Established
NA October 1975

Aim
to facilitate economic cooperation among the developed countries (DCs) that participated in the Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC), held in several sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 June 1977

Members (8)
Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK, US

Group of 9 (G-9)

Established
NA

Aim
to discuss matters of mutual interest on an informal basis

Members (9)
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Sweden

Group of 10 (G-10)
Note – also known as the Paris Club; includes the wealthiest members of the IMF which provide most of the money to be loaned and act as the informal steering committee; name persists in spite of the addition of Switzerland on NA April 1984

Established
NA October 1962

Aim
to coordinate credit policy

Members (11)
Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

Non-state participants (4)
BIS, EC, IMF, OECD

Group of 11 (G-11)
Note – also known as the Cartagena Group

Established
in 21-22 June 1984, in Cartagena, Colombia;

Aim
was to provide a forum for largest debtor nations in Latin America;

Members
were Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

Group of 15 (G-15)
Note – byproduct of the Nonaligned Movement

Established
NA September 1989

Aim
to promote economic cooperation among developing nations; to act as the main political organ for the Nonaligned Movement

Members (17)
Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Venezuela, Zimbabwe

Group of 24 (G-24)

Established
1 August 1989

Aim
to promote the interests of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America within the IMF

Members (24)
Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Iran, Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela

Group of 77 (G-77)

Established
15 June1964; NA October 1967 first ministerial meeting

Aim
to promote economic cooperation among developing countries; name persists in spite of increased membership

Members (133 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d’Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization

Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
Note – also known as Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)

Established
12 August 1980; effective – 18 March 1981

Aim
to promote freer regional trade

Members (12)
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

Observers (23)
China, Commission of the European Communities, Corporacion Andina de Fomento, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Inter-American Development Bank, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, Italy, Latin America Economic System, Nicaragua, Organization of American States, Panama, Pan-American Health Organization, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, United Nations Development Program, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Established
14 December 1960;

Effective
30 September 1961

Aim
to promote economic cooperation and development

Members (30)
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

Special member (1) EU

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC)

Established
9 January 1968

Aim
to promote cooperation in the petroleum industry

Members (11)
Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, UAE

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Established
14 September 1960

Aim
to coordinate petroleum policies

Members (11)
Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela

Southern African Customs Union (SACU)

Established
11 December 1969

Aim
to promote free trade and cooperation in customs matters

Members (5)
Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland

Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) or Southern Common Market
Note – also known as Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (Mercosur)

Established
26 March 1991

Aim
to increase regional economic cooperation

Members (4)
Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay

Associate members (2)
Bolivia, Chile

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Established
30 December 1964

Aim
to promote international trade

Members (192)
all UN members plus Holy See

World Customs Organization (WCO)
Note – began as the Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)

Established
15 December 1950

Aim
to promote international cooperation in customs matters

Members (162)
Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

World Trade Organization (WTrO)
Note – succeeded General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT)

Established
15 April 1994; effective – 1 January 1995

Aim
to provide a forum to resolve trade conflicts between members and to carry on negotiations with the goal of further lowering and/or eliminating tariffs and other trade barriers

Members (146)
Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau,The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Observers (30)
Algeria, Andorra, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Belarus, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Holy See, Kazakhstan, Laos, Lebanon, Nepal, Russia, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tonga, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen; note – must start accession negotiations within five years of becoming observers

Reference:

(1) http://www.cia.gov/

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